Thursday, February 27, 2014

Requirements Gathering Techniques

Requirements Gathering Techniques

2.Document Analysis
3.Focus Group
4.Interface Analysis
8.Requirements Workshop
9.Reverse Engineering

1. Brainstorming
Brainstorming is used in requirements elicitation to get as many ideas as possible from a group of
people. Generally used to identify possible solutions to problems, and clarify details of
opportunities. Brainstorming casts a wide net, identifying many different possibilities.
Prioritization of those possibilities is important to finding the needles in the haystack.

2. Document Analysis
Reviewing the documentation of an existing system can help when creating AS-IS process documents, as
well as driving gap analysis for scoping of migration projects. In an ideal world, we would even be
reviewing the requirements that drove creation of the existing system – a starting point for
documenting current requirements. Ask questions as part of validating requirement completeness.

3. Focus Group
A focus group is a gathering of people who are representative of the users or customers of a product
to get feedback. The feedback can be gathered about needs / opportunities / problems to identify
requirements, or can be gathered to validate and refine already elicited requirements. This form of
market research is distinct from brainstorming in that it is a managed process with specific
participants. There is danger in “following the crowd”, and some people believe focus groups are at
best ineffective. One risk is that we end up with the lowest common denominator features.

4. Interface Analysis
Interfaces for a software product can be human or machine. Integration with external systems and
devices is just another interface. User centric design approaches are very effective at making sure
that we create usable software. Interface analysis – reviewing the touch points with other external
systems – is important to make sure we don’t overlook requirements that aren’t immediately visible
to users.

5. Interview
Interviews of stakeholders and users are critical to creating the great software. Without
understanding the goals and expectations of the users and stakeholders, we are very unlikely to
satisfy them. We also have to recognize the perspective of each interviewee, so that we can properly
weigh and address their inputs. Like a great reporter, listening is the skill that helps a great
analyst to get more value from an interview than an average analyst.

6. Observation

The study of users in their natural habitats is what observation is about. By observing users, an
analyst can identify a process flow, awkward steps, pain points and opportunities for improvement.
Observation can be passive or active (asking questions while observing). Passive observation is
better for getting feedback on a prototype (to refine requirements), where active observation is
more effective at getting an understanding of an existing business process. Either approach can be
used to uncover implicit requirements that otherwise might go overlooked.

7. Prototyping

Prototypes can be very effective at gathering feedback. Low fidelity prototypes can be used as an
active listening tool. Often, when people can not articulate a particular need in the abstract, they
can quickly assess if a design approach would address the need. Prototypes are most efficiently done
with quick sketches of interfaces and storyboards. Prototypes are even being used as the “official
requirements” in some situations.
8. Requirements Workshop
More commonly known as a joint application design (JAD) session, workshops can be very effective for
gathering requirements. More structured than a brainstorming session, involved parties collaborate
to document requirements. One way to capture the collaboration is with creation of domain-model
artifacts (like static diagrams, activity diagrams). A workshop will be more effective with two
analysts than with one, where a facilitator and a scribe work together.

9. Reverse Engineering

Is this a starting point or a last resort? When a migration project does not have access to
sufficient documentation of the existing system, reverse engineering will identify what the system
does. It will not identify what the system should do, and will not identify when the system does the
wrong thing.

10. Survey
When collecting information from many people – too many to interview with budget and time
constraints – a survey or questionnaire can be used. The survey can force users to select from
choices, rate something (“Agree Strongly, Agree…”), or have open ended questions allowing free-form
responses. Survey design is hard – questions can bias the respondents. Don’t assume that you can
create a survey on your own, and get meaningful insight from the results. I would expect that a well
designed survey would provide qualitative guidance for characterizing the market. It should not be
used for prioritization of features or requirements.
Kshitij Yelkar

Just never give up

Motivational Quote: It’s okay to doubt yourself, it’s okay to feel down; just never give up.— Aaron Patzer

Kshitij Yelkar

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Resource breakdown structure vs Resource Histogram

Resource breakdown structure  vs Resource Histogram

The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for
organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.

Resource breakdown structure 

Resource Histogram used by the project management team as a means of providing a visual representation or resources allocation to all interested parties. This chart illustrates the number of hours a person, department, or entire project team that will be needed each week or month over the course of the project. The chart can include a horizontal line that represents the maximum number of
hours available from a particular resource. Bars that extend beyond the maximum available
hours identify the need for a resource optimization strategy

Resource Histogram


kshitij yelkar

Keywords :  PMP,Project Management , Time Management, Resource Histogram ,Resource breakdown structure 

Why I succeed

Why I succeed...

Motivation Quote: I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life and that is why I succeed.— Michael Jordan
Kshitij Yelkar

Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Quality improvement Models Vs Process improvement models

Quality improvement Models vs Process improvement models

The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle is the basis for quality improvement as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming. In addition, quality improvement initiatives such as Total
Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma could improve the quality of the project’s management as well as the quality of the project’s product.

Commonly used Process improvement models include Malcolm Baldrige, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3®), and Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI®).

Keywords : Quality , Improvement , PDCA ,CMM,Six Sigma,Quality Management,OPM

kshitij yelkar

I can accept failure

I can accept failure...

Motivational Quote: I can accept failure, everyone fails at something. But I can’t accept not trying.— Michael Jordan

Kshitij Yelkar

Monday, February 24, 2014

Factors which impact the Project Estimation

Factors which impact the Project Estimation

There are Many factors can impact that, i am sharing some which may have higher impacts
1. Scope
2. Cost of Resource
3. Time lines ( if you need soon , you may need to pick some expensive options)
4. Risk (so high the risk high the contingency reserve )
5. Quality Policy ( cost of quality, if some process has to be followed it will generate cost )
6. Customer Attitude ( how easy or hard to take approval from customers)
7. Environmental Conditions (like inflation or attrition )

There may be many factors but this are the higher impact, Information received from experts in

Kshitij yelkar

Success is not final...

Success is not final...
Motivation Quote: Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts. - Winston  Churchill
Kshitij yelkar

Sunday, February 23, 2014

Histograms Vs. Control Chart

Histograms Vs. Control Chart

Histograms are a special form of bar chart and are used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. Unlike the control chart, the histogram does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.

Why histogram does not consider the influence of time, Check attachment herewith

In below given there are two graphs histogram and Control Chart, here product quality output range is getting measured.
So in histogram we just put bar as per the input eg. 55,60,75,63 (Check in diagram) etc. , In this case we just draw bars to get vertical chart information and variance against each other.

But if we want to see that in particular time what is the quality output variance in product output then is possible with Control chart as you can see in control chart there is middle line that is mean. Here same point are plotted in graph and linked with the link, with this graph we can analyses our product quality variation against mean in given period of time

Kshitij Yelkar

Keywords:   Histogram, control chart, quality, quality tools, pmp, project management

Never Giveup- Motivational Quote

Motivational Quote:  Never give up on a dream just because of the time it will take to accomplish it. The time will pass anyway.— Earl Nightingale
Kshitij yelkar

Project Management (PMP) in Marathi - Case Study - Chiu Tai che Gharte - (Part-I)

Project Management (PMP) in Marathi
Case Study - Chiu Tai che Gharte

I have written on youtube video to learn Project management -PMP concept in marathi language with one case study - Chiu tai che Gharte (Nest of Sparrow), This is part i have uploaded all other parts are coming soon, which will contain detail knowledge of Different PMP 47 knowledge areas.

It is nice to see my first youtube learning video

Kshitij Yelkar

Friday, February 21, 2014

Software QA and QC Process

Software QA and QC Process

1. QA is associated with Assurance & Audit | QC is associated with Control and Inception
2. QA is preventive | QC is Corrective

In Software QA Activities can be :
1. Making and following coding guidelines
2. Making and following design guidelines
3. Doing Unit Testing

In Software QC Activities can be :
1. Doing Testing / Inspection
2. Doing Regression Testing.

Perform Quality Assurance is primarily concerned with overall PROCESS IMPROVEMENT. It is not about
inspecting the product for quality or measuring defects. Instead, Performance Quality Assurance is
focused on steadily improving the activities and processes undertaken to achieve quality.

Perform Quality Control is the process where each deliverable is INSPECTED, MEASURED, and TESTED.
This process makes sure that everything produced meets quality

Kshitij yelkar

Worse thing

Motivation Quote: The only thing worse than starting something and failing… is not starting something.

Kshitij Yelkar


Thursday, February 20, 2014

What to do if Risk identified in between of Project?

What to do if Risk identified in between of Project?

Que. If new risk is identified in between of project and it has cost impact, Then client will be impacted on same ? How this situation get managed commercially with the client.

Ans. We have something called management reserves defined in project budget for unknown unknowns. That is nothing but reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project.. If there is newly identified risk which impact cost means it is something which was unknown at the time of project initiation, planning and now some new work is to be done. We can make use of management reserves and take approval to update the cost baseline.
Answering your question - if there is something which is beyond the allocated management reserves, we may need to really look in details that new risk is really within scope of this project or the work this risk is triggering can be taken separately. Ideally management reserves are devised taking into consideration of size of project and probability of unknown unknowns can be reported for it and should be sufficient to address it

Que. Is defined management reserved get discussed with the client?
Assuming we mentioned 5% management cost reserved in pm plan and if that is not used till the end of the project , will it get benefited to client at the time of billing?

Ans. A lot depend on type of Procurement Contract Between these two parties.
a. Fixed Price, client has nothing to do with this, its a vendor responsibility to manage it , while vendor create budget for project ,he should take care of such risks
b. On time and Material or Cost Reimbursement, vendor has to make detail report on this issue and customer is the one who is going to pay the additional cost.

Kshitij yelkar

Keywords : PMP , Risk identification, Project Management, management reserved

Continuous effort

Motivation Quote: Continuous effort – not strength or intelligence – is the key to unlocking our potential.

Kshitij Yelkar

My Kiddu's Hat - Created for hat Competition in School

My Kiddu's Hat - Created for hat Competition in School (Doremon Hat)

Kshitij Yelkar

Keywords: Doremon Hat , Doremon cap Design

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Confidence, Belief and Hardwork...

Kshitij Yelkar

Resource leveling Vs Resource smoothing

Resource leveling Vs. Resource smoothing

Resource leveling is a technique used to examine unbalanced use of resources (usually people or equipment) over time, and for resolving over-allocations or conflict.
Some times only one resource can do a given activity. If that resource is busy doing another activity on the critical path, the path itself needs to change to include that dependency.

For eg.
Let's say - John is allocated to a project with 100% available units. He is assigned to three tasks with a duration of one day and an estimate of 8 hours. The tasks have no dependencies and constraints. Without resource leveling, these tasks are scheduled to start on the same day. John is over-allocated because he is required to work for 24 (8*3) hours in one day to finish the three tasks. When the tasks are leveled, they are ordered in sequence to start one after another

Resource smoothing means the uniform distribution of resource allocation over the project so as not to exceed predetermined resource limits but only optimized within the float boundaries. It typically does not affect project schedule, because the total allocation of a certain resource remains the same.

For Eg.
Let's say that you have a resource working 30 hours this week, 10 hours next week, and 20 hours the week after next week. When you apply resource smoothing, the resource will work 20 hours this week, 20 hours next week, and 20 hours the week after. You see, the total amount of hours remains 60 hours, but is more uniformly distributed over the weeks.

Kshitij Yelkar

Different Types of Float in Project

Different Types of Float in Project

Total Float - Amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying project end date and adhering to schedule constraints. E.g. Let's suppose there are 2 activities (A&B) back 2 back whose float when added can take care of delays in activity A keeping project end date intact but in this adjustment, start date of B may be changed and there is no impact on any other schedule also

Free Float - Amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying Early Start of successor activity and adhering to schedule constraints. So in this case we have to take care and ES of activity B should be intact. Only float of activity A can be used without impacting other schedule contraints

Project Float - This term is no there in PMBOK however in some other reference book this is described. This is the buffer kept between the actual planned completion date and date committed to client. E.g planned end date of a project is X and we give the delivery date to client as X+A. In this scenario, A is referred as Project Float

Kshitij Yelkar

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Don't Limit Yourself

Open your thoughts and see you will do miracle....

Kshitij Yelkar

Monday, February 17, 2014

Kshitij Yelkar

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Struggle and Progress

Really True...

Kshitij yelkar

Saturday, February 15, 2014

Nice to share this Quote today ....

Doing one thing every day that scares you..

In our daily life we scares with some of thing and we avoid that things when it comes to us

It mean we don't know how to do that thing in detail or we don't like that as we don't have any interest/knowledge in same...

But don't you thing so that, If i scare with particular thing and to do that thing I need to know 100 things for which i don't have knowledge at the moment...

If out of that 100 things i do or understand each thing in day then in that 100 days my scare will be out...

Eg. I scare to do any project on particular skills, and i don't have that skill at the moment i don't take interest in that task as I scare that i may fail due to my lack of knowledge. Yes but if i get that knowledge just by doing small thing in day and then after couple of days i will be master into that an my fear will go away........

So just do one thing casually will get you master in couple of day......

Kshitij Yelkar